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A Complex-Systems Approach to Organizations
Svyantek, D J, & Brown, L L
"It is proposed that complex-systems research has application to the study of organizations and social behavior... Organizational attractors exist and seem to be both sensitive to initial conditions and stable. The discussion of concepts from complex systems, and their application to organizations, provides insight into how organizational research should be conducted." -- from Abstract

A General Systems Theory of Marriage: Nonlinear Difference Equation Modeling of Marital Interaction
Gottman, J, Swanson, C, & Swanson, K
Nov 2002
"This article describes a new mathematical approach for modeling the prediction of divorce or marital stability from marital interaction using nonlinear difference equations. The approach is quite general for modeling social interaction, and can be applied to any time series data generated over time for two individuals." -- from Abstract

A Multilevel Approach to Theory and Research in Organizations: Contextual, Temporal, and Emergent Processes
Kozlowski, S W J, & Klein, K J
In the first of three sections in this chapter on multilevel theory development, the authors "review the theoretical roots of the multilevel perspective as it relates to theory building and organizations... In the second section, we clarify, synthesize, and extend basic principles to guide multilevel theory development... In the third section, we extend multilevel organizational theory by drawing particular attention to relatively neglected bottom-up processes." -- from Website

A Multimodal Approach to Seemingly Intractable Conflict
Pruitt, D G, & Olczak, P V
This chapter from Part One of the book Conflict, Cooperation and Justice: Essays Inspired by the Work of Morton Deutsch lays out a multimodal approach to resolving intractable conflicts. The approach is designed to address issues at each conflict escalation stage.

America Needs Political Shock Therapy
Coleman, P T
16 Aug 2012
According to the author, "a series of major political shocks occurred that ruptured our unity and tore this country apart into Blue Liberals and Red Conservatives, which settled into the self-reinforcing pattern of divisions we live with today. Even 9/11 appeared to do little to unite this country for long -- instead simply bolstering our divisions. So what can we do? ...Here are four tactics informed by complexity science." -- from Article

Attracted to Conflict: Dynamic Foundations of Destructive Social Relations
Vallacher, R R, Coleman, P T, Nowak, A, Bui-Wrzosinska, L, et al.
"This book addresses the subject of intractable social conflict from a new vantage point. Here, these types of conflict represent self-organizing phenomena, emerging quite naturally from the ongoing dynamics in human interaction at any scale--from the interpersonal to the international. Using the universal language and computational framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory in combination with recent insights from social psychology, intractable conflict is understood as a system locked in special attractor states that constrain the thoughts and actions of the parties to the conflict." -- from Website

Bottom-Up Peace
Coleman, P T, & Deutsch, M
22 Apr 2011
"The protracted Israeli-Palestinian conflict has again reached a stalemate and negotiations between the parties have broken off. However, we believe it is urgent that the United States and the others in the Quartet (The UN, the EU and Russia) take steps to initiate a renewed movement for peace... We believe that implementation of this proposal provides the best chance for a permanent productive Israel-Palestine peace and for the democratic transformation of many of the nations in the Middle East." -- from Article

Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies
Lederach, J P
Lederach explains why we need to move beyond "traditional" diplomacy, which often emphasizes top-level leaders and short-term objectives, toward a holistic approach that stresses the multiplicity of peacemakers, long-term perspectives, and the need to create an infrastructure that empowers resources within a society and maximizes contributions from outside.

Complexity Matters
Ben-Yehuda, R
7 Mar 2012
"Conflict resolution practitioners would do well in thinking of practices and techniques for increasing people's awareness of their own identity complexity. Some promising work on identity-based training has been done in this regard, but the practical potential of this research has yet to be fully realized." -- from Website

Complexity Theory and Conflict Transformation: An Exploration of Potential and Implications
Hendrick, D
Jun 2009
"This working paper is intended as an exploration of the usefulness of complexity theory to the field of peace research and conflict intervention... The paper begins by outlining key features of complex systems before going on to illustrate attempts made to apply complexity theory (originating in the natural sciences) in various social science fields with a consideration of some of the difficulties this translation poses." -- from Abstract

Complexity, Conflict Resolution, and How the Mind Works
Jones, W, & Hughes, S H
"Western thought has changed considerably over the centuries. As assumptions about knowledge shifts, fields of practice are affected. This article reviews critical epistemological developments and the implications for the field of ADR." -- from Abstract

Conflict Resolution in Action -- Applying Dynamical Systems Theory
24 May 2012
This video shows how Dynamical System Theory "can be applied and practiced to illuminate the complexity of conflict and seek out simple, sustainable solutions. In this case, students are considering a multi-party conflict in Nigeria... The process begins with mapping exercises that help stakeholders visualize the complex relationship between events during the conflict's history. These maps enable parties to identify underlying issues, hidden patterns, and opportunities for envisioning." -- from Website

Conflict, Complexity, and Change: A Meta-Framework for Addressing Protracted, Intractable Conflicts (Part III)
Coleman, P T
"This article is the 3rd in a 3-part series presenting a meta-framework for addressing protracted, intractable conflicts. It offers a new approach to conflict analysis and intervention that is responsive to the complex dynamics and long-term natures of these problems. A set of guidelines for intervention is outlined and applied to a contemporary case for illustration." -- from Abstract

Conflict, Culture, and Complexity: The Effects of Simple versus Complex Rules in Negotiation
Chung, C, Coleman, P T, & Gelfand, M J
"The purpose of this research was to study how cultural rules of engagement affect conflict processes and outcomes through the framework provided by dynamical systems theory. By theoretically exploring the structures of rules and empirically examining their relationships with both subjective and objective responses, positive correlations were found between complexity and constructiveness of conflict systems." -- from Abstract

Conflict, Leadership, and Knowledge Creation
Kegan, R
Jul 1998
In the book In Over Our Heads: The Mental Demands of Modern Life, the author develops "a theory of evolving ways of knowing that allows us to view adult development much as we view child development, as an open-ended process born of the dynamic interaction of cultural demands and emerging mental capabilities" (from Book Description). In Chapter 9, the author applies his theory to conflict, leadership, and knowledge creation.

Dynamical Minimalism: Why Less is More in Psychology
Nowak, A
The goal of the dynamical minimalism approach to theory construction "is to identify the simplest mechanisms and fewest variables capable of producing the phenomenon in question. A dynamical model in which change is produced by simple rules repetitively interacting with each other can exhibit unexpected and complex properties. It is thus possible to explain complex psychological and social phenomena with very simple models if these models are dynamic. In dynamical minimalist theories, then, the principle of parsimony can be followed without sacrificing depth in understanding." -- from Abstract

Dynamical Social Psychology
Nowak, A S, & Vallacher, R R
"This book uses innovative concepts and tools to illuminate the processes by which individuals, groups, and societies evolve and change in a systemic, self-sustaining manner, at times seemingly independent of external influences. Readers learn how the dynamical approach facilitates novel predictions and insights into such social psychological phenomena as attitudes, social judgment, goal-directed behavior, attraction, and relationships." -- from Website

Dynamical Social Psychology: Finding Order in the Flow of Human Experience
Vallacher, R R, & Nowak, A
This chapter from Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles aims to "to outline the dynamical perspective and demonstrate its relevance to social psychology. The dynamical approach serves as both a useful heuristic and an integrative platform for the diverse phenomena comprising social psychology." -- from Abstract

Dynamics of Two-Actor Cooperation-Competition Conflict Models
Liebovitch, L S, Vallacher, R, Nowak, A, Bui-Wrzosinska, L, et al.
Nov 2008
"A mathematical model for conflict can give us insight into which mechanisms are the most important in maintaining or resolving a conflict. We developed a nonlinear model... [and] analyzed this model using analytical methods and numerical computer simulations. We show how the dynamics of the interactions between the actors depends on whether they influence each other through positive feedback (cooperation), negative feedback (competition), or mixed positive and negative feedback." -- from Abstract

Eric Berlow: Simplifying Complexity
"Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points." -- from Website

Ethnic Divisions and the Fall of the Arab Spring: What's in a Name?
Coleman, P T
10 Jun 2011
"...[G]roup identification is a mixed-bag. It can bestow great benefits -- an enhanced sense of esteem, efficacy, belongingness, harmony and security -- and it can lead to great harms -- outgroup intolerance, exclusion, contempt, violence and annihilation. The central question is what determines the mix -- whether our ethnic identities unite us or divide us? Decades of social-psychological research has shed light on this." -- from Article

From Crude Law to Civil Relations: The Dynamics and Potential Resolution of Intractable Conflict
Nowak, A, Deutsch, M, & Bartkowski, W
The authors use computer simulations to develop a formal model "that captures the basic processes at work in the development and transformation of intractable conflict... Local mechanisms are found to be crucial for global dynamics of conflict. Conflicts grow exponentially in places of the highest incompatibility of interests and diffuse from these places. Conflicts escalate to intractability by changing social orientations in areas of its highest intensity. Disruption of locality (e.g. globalization) can paradoxically reduce the conflict. Simulations also suggest that seemingly intractable conflicts can be transformed by creating a fast growing positive process in the vicinity of their center." -- from Abstract

Give Peace a (Last) Chance
Coleman, P T
7 Mar 2011
"A peace deal between Israel and the Palestinians will go a long way to strengthen the secular or pluralistic elements within the populations clamoring for change in the region, which will be crucial for the survival of both nations." -- from Article

Human Conflict (Special Issue)
18 May 2012
"In this special issue we consider the deep evolutionary roots of violent confrontation. We trace the trajectory of violence and war throughout history, exploring racism, ethnic conflicts, the rise of terrorism, and the possible future of armed conflicts. We also consider our innate capacity to mediate conflict and our ability to achieve -- and live in -- peace." -- from Website

Human Conflict (Special Issue): Additional Online Features
18 May 2012

Images of Organization
Morgan, G
This book is based on the premise "that all theories of organization and management are based on implicit images or metaphors that stretch our imagination in a way that can create powerful insights, but at the risk of distortion. Gareth Morgan provides a rich and comprehensive resource for exploring the complexity of modern organizations internationally." -- from Website

In Myanmar, Searching for the Roots of Peace
Gray, S
27 Jul 2012
The author describes a project which "focuses on identifying 'latent peace capacities' that already exist in and outside of [Myanmar], while also exploring means of transforming the underlying structures that give rise to conflict. Recognizing a society's latent capacity for peace is fundamentally different than focusing on problems or confronting an adversary on the battlefield or at the negotiating table. Our research seeks to identify pro-peace constituencies that are either not empowered or not connected to the power structures or change processes that might maximize their positive impact (from Website)."

Intractable Conflict
Coleman, P T
In this chapter of the Handbook of Conflict Resolution, author Peter T. Coleman examines the nature and causes of intractable conflicts. He suggests techniques for intervention into intractable conflicts, and considers the implications of his findings for conflict resolution training. Drawing on recent work in the field, Coleman develops eight guidelines for intervening in intractable conflicts.

Intragroup Subgroup Clustering, International Intervention, and Intergroup Interaction Patterning: Toward a Dynamical Model of Protracted Intergroup Conflict
Coleman, P T, Schneider, A, Adams, D S, James, K C F, et al.
"Scholars and practitioners working with enduring conflicts have long recognized the complex and dynamical natures and relationships of intragroup and intergroup processes in these settings... Recent advances in dynamical systems theory have provided a new set of tools for building computer simulations that allow us to model the dynamic patterns emerging over time in these situations. This paper presents one such model: A dynamical model of protracted intergroup conflict. Using data collected from Israeli and Palestinian communities during the current Intifada, we modeled the impact of conflict escalation and international intervention on intragroup subgroup attitude clustering and patterns of intergroup interactions." -- from Abstract

Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else and What it Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life
Barabasi, A - L
"A cocktail party. A terrorist cell. Ancient bacteria. An international conglomerate. All are networks, and all are a part of a surprising scientific revolution. Albert-Laszlo Barabasi... takes us on an intellectual adventure to prove that social networks, corporations, and living organisms are more similar than previously thought. Grasping a full understanding of network science, will someday allow us to design blue chip businesses, stop the outbreak of deadly diseases, and influence the exchange of ideas and information." -- from Website

Moral Conflict and Complexity: The Dynamics of Constructive Versus Destructive Discussions Over Polarizing Issues
Kugler, K G, Coleman, P T, & Fuchs, A M
"Intractable conflicts tend to divide communities and trap people in destructive and costly spirals of negativity, intergroup contempt and violence. But these conflicts can be managed constructively. Two laboratory studies investigating the dynamics of intractable conflict are presented which shed light on how. They portray the basic dynamics of more intractable conflicts as those which have lost the complexity and openness inherent to more constructive social relations, and show more coherent, closed patterns of thinking, feeling and acting." -- from Abstract

Moral Conflict: When Social Worlds Collide
Pearce, B W, & Littlejohn, S W
The authors "describe a dialectical tension between the expression and suppression of conflict that can be transcended in ways that lead to personal growth and productive patterns of social action. In Moral Conflict several projects are described as practical examples of these new ways of working through difficult struggles." -- from Website

Navigating the Impossible 5 Percent at Work
Coleman, P T
29 Sep 2011
"Scholars estimate that about five percent of the more difficult conflicts we face become intractable: highly destructive, enduring and resistant to multiple good-faith attempts at resolution... Like epidemics, the five percent seem to operate by a different set of rules, and are therefore unresponsive to typical approaches to conflict resolution and so require a radically different approach. Fortunately, recent breakthroughs in the study of such conflicts -- much of it from the international domain -- have shed light on new strategies for addressing such problems effectively." -- from Article

Navigating the Landscape of Conflict: Applications of Dynamical Systems Theory to Addressing Protracted Conflict
Coleman, P T, Vallacher, R, Bartoli, A, Nowak, A, et al.
"Our aim in this chapter is to present the essence of the dynamical approach to conflict, with emphasis on the added value of this approach for untangling mysteries of intractable conflict and providing new guidelines for the resolution of such conflicts. To demonstrate the practical utility of our perspective, we couch our discussion in a real-world context: the seemingly intractable 16-year civil war and subsequent outbreak of peace in Mozambique in the late 1980s." -- from Chapter

New Ways to Think About Solving Intractable Problems
Lutman, S
1 May 2011
This author of this blog post discusses a project led by Peter T. Coleman called 'Modeling the Fundamental Dynamics of Intractable Conflict', which aims to apply complexity science to intractable, destructive conflicts. She concludes that Coleman's thinking is stimulating because "traditionally we think of conflicts as having solutions, something like solving a math problem. Thinking of an intractable conflict as system, whose stasis depends on persistent tending of a landscape of forces and factors, is proving a helpful new conceptual framework for me as I go about my work." -- from Website

Overview of Basic Concepts in Dynamic Network Theory
Westaby, J D
Jan 2012
"This document presents a brief sampling of the new concepts and methods in dynamic network theory. The theory proposes that (1) network motivation towards goals (activated by goal strivers and system supporters in social networks) positively influences goal achievement and performance, (2) network resistance (activated by goal preventers and supportive resisters) negatively influences performance, and (3) network reactance roles (activated by system negators and system reactors) and peripheral roles (activated by interactants and observers) have variable effects on performance, depending on the situation." -- from Abstract

Peace is in Movement: A Dynamical Systems Perspective on the Emergence of Peace in Mozambique
Bartoli, A, Bui-Wrzosinska, L, & Nowak, A
"This article uses the dynamical systems perspective to explore how the escalation, maintenance, and transformation of the Mozambican conflict may be understood and systematized... This article analyzes political, cultural, and symbolic aspects of the conflict transformation, with an emphasis on how peace was institutionalized in the country. The article concludes by outlining some general principles of the dynamical perspective on the formation and dissolution of intractable conflicts, based on this case analysis." -- from Abstract

Power and Limits of Dynamical Systems Theory in Conflict Analysis
Hoffmann, M H G
Apr 2007
"One of the most exciting new approaches in conflict research applies Dynamical Systems Theory (DST) to explain the devastating dynamics of intractable conflicts. This paper describes what makes this approach so powerful, and discusses some of its limitations that become visible in the mathematical models of DST that are available so far." -- from Paper

President Obama's Mixed-Motive Dilemma
Coleman, P T
3 Feb 2012
According to the author, President Obama is faced with a mixed-motive dilemma, and unfortunately "when parties to conflict face such high-stakes competing and common goals, the result is often either to: 1) suffer from a debilitating sense of paralysis and stagnation over the painful trade-offs of action or, more commonly, 2) go on the attack and do everything possible to defeat the opponent, and then suffer the consequences to your shared concerns... But the study of mixed-motive dilemmas has revealed other, often more effective or optimal strategies." -- from Article

Rethinking Intractable Conflict: The Perspective of Dynamical Systems
Vallacher, R R, Coleman, P T, Nowak, A, & Bui-Wrzosinska, L
"Although the common factors and processes associated with intractable conflicts have been identified through research, they represent an embarrassment of riches for theory construction. Thus, the current task in this area is integrating these diverse factors into an account that provides a coherent perspective yet allows for prediction and a basis for conflict resolution in specific conflict settings. We suggest that the perspective of dynamical systems provides such an account. This article outlines key concepts and hypotheses associated with this approach." -- from Chapter

Revolutionary Change Theories: A Multilevel Exploration of the Punctuated Equilibrium Paradigm
Gersick, C J G
"Research on how organizational systems develop and change is shaped, at every level of analysis, by traditional assumptions about how change works... This article compares models from six domains-adult, group, and organizational development, history of science, biological evolution, and physical science-to explicate the punctuated equilibrium paradigm and show its broad applicability for organizational studies." -- from Abstract

Searching for Clues to Calamity
Guterl, F
20 Jul 2012
According to the author, "no one knows if there is a point at which a climate system shifts abruptly. But some scientists are now bringing mathematical rigor to the tipping-point argument. Their findings give us fresh cause to worry that sudden changes are in our future." -- from Article

Seasons of Change in the Arab World: For Better or Worse?
Coleman, P T
20 May 2011
"In Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Jordan, Libya, Syria and most recently Israel, a chain of destabilizing events has been unfolding, the likes of which have not been seen since the fall of the Iron Curtain... The outcome of these events is for now unknowable, but as a peace psychologist who studies complex systems, I see cause for hope amidst the chaos -- though it comes at great cost." -- from Article

System Behavior and Causal Loop Diagrams
Kirkwood, C W
"The methods of systems thinking provide us with tools to better understand difficult management problems... To start to consider system structure, you first generalize from the specific events associated with your problem to considering patterns of behavior that characterize the situation... To better understand the system structures which cause the patterns of behavior...we introduce a notation for representing system structures." -- from Website

System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life
Jervis, R
The author concludes "that the very foundations of many social science theories -- especially those in political science -- are faulty. Taking insights from complexity theory as his point of departure, the author observes that we live in a world where things are interconnected, where unintended consequences of our actions are unavoidable and unpredictable, and where the total effect of behavior is not equal to the sum of individual actions. Jervis draws on a wide range of human endeavors to illustrate the nature of these system effects." -- from Website

Systemic Action Research: A Strategy for Whole System Change
Burns, D
"The book explains how systemic thinking works and how Systemic Action Research can be embedded into organisational structures and processes to catalyse sustainable change and critical local interventions. Practically written, it details how to design a programme and build it directly into policy and practice development, extending the possibilities of action research beyond the 'individual' and the 'group' to work across whole organisations, multi agency governance arenas, and networks." -- from Website

The Decade for Peace in Israel-Palestine
Coleman, P T
14 May 2012
"The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is...an immensely complicated hundred-year-old conflict that today operates and is reinforced across a multitude of issues, time periods, stakeholders and lands... Fortunately, the resolution of other seemingly intractable conflicts elsewhere in the world offer Israel-Palestine important lessons, particularly in light of the changes currently taking place in the region." -- from Article

The Dynamics of Conflict: Frequently Asked Questions
"The frequently asked questions (FAQs) presented here were written to highlight the essential points of the dynamical perspective on social experience, with an eye toward the implications of this perspective for the understanding and potential resolution of intractable conflict... [We also list] some basic readings we have published that describe various features of this perspective and its empirical base." -- from Website

The Essence of Peace? Toward a Comprehensive and Parsimonious Model of Sustainable Peace
Coleman, P T
This concluding chapter of Psychological Components of Sustainable Peace, a text linking psychosocial processes to sustainable peace, "offers a summary and synthesis of this research; highlighting the basic commonalities of the construct of sustainable peace that underlay the many aspects discussed in the book, and offering a more parsimonious model of sustainable peace, informed by dynamical systems theory, which conceptualizes the effects of the many component parts on increasing and decreasing the probabilities of stable dynamics of destructive conflict and peace." -- from Abstract

The Five Percent Problem
Coleman, P T
In this series of four brief videos, Peter T. Coleman discusses why five percent of difficult conflicts become intractable and seemingly unsolvable and offers some helpful ways to think about solving them. Coleman introduces the five percent problem in the first video. Then, in three subsequent videos, he presents case studies on three intractable conflicts: a problem of gang-violence in the South Bronx in New York City, a conflict over the Israeli-Palestinian conflict at Columbia University, and the 16-year civil war in Mozambique.

The Five Percent: Finding Solutions to Seemingly Impossible Conflicts
Coleman, P T
"One in every twenty difficult conflicts ends up not in a calm reconciliation or tolerable standoff but as an acute and lasting antagonism... According to Dr. Peter T. Coleman, to contend with this destructive species of conflict we must understand the invisible dynamics at work... Informed by lessons drawn from practical experience, advances in complexity theory, and the psychological and social currents that drive conflicts both international and domestic, Coleman offers innovative new strategies for dealing with disputes of all types, ranging from abortion debates to the enmity between Israelis and Palestinians." -- from Website

The Logic of Failure: Why Things Go Wrong and What We Can Do to Make Them Right
Dorner, D
The author "considers why -- given all our intelligence, experience, and information -- we make mistakes, sometimes with catastrophic consequences. Surprisingly, he finds the answer not in negligence or carelessness, but in what he calls 'the logic of failure': certain tendencies in our patterns of thought -- such as taking one thing at a time, cause and effect, and linear thinking -- that, while appropriate to an older, simpler world, prove disastrous for the complex world we live in now." -- from Website

The Mathematics of Middle East Conflict and Peace
Coleman, P T
1 Jul 2011
"Experts estimate that about five percent of international conflicts become intractable: highly destructive, enduring and resistant to multiple good-faith attempts at resolution. ... A branch of applied mathematics called complexity science provides a basic platform for understanding how intractable conflicts assemble themselves into attractors; these are tightly-coupled systems that resist change. ... What does the Five Percent perspective recommend for the Israel-Palestinian conflict? Here are a few thoughts." -- from Article

The Non-Linearity of Peace Processes: Theory and Practice of Systemic Conflict Transformation
This book analyzes "the value added by integrating systemic thinking into peacebuilding theory and practice. The aim of this book is to link the most recent debates in the peacebuilding field, e.g. on liberal peace, on the non-linearity of conflict dynamics and on bridging the attribution gap, with various systemic discourses, discussing the extent to which systemic thinking and methods are helpful to further develop existing approaches to conflict transformation." -- from Website

The Psychological Components of a Sustainable Peace
Jul 2012
This book on the psychology of peace "moves beyond a prevention-orientation to the study of the conditions for increasing the probabilities for sustainable, cooperative peace. Such a view combines preventative scholarship with a promotive-orientation to the study of peaceful situations and societies" (from Book Description). For an overview, see Chapter 1 - Psychological Components of Sustainable Peace: An Introduction and Chapter 18 - Conclusion: The Essence of Peace? Toward a Comprehensive and Parsimonious Model of Sustainable Peace.

Time, Temporal Capability, and Planned Change
Huy, Q N
Oct 2001
"I propose four ideal types of planned change processes, each with distinct temporal and nontemporal assumptions, and each associated with altering a distinct organizational element. These types are commanding, engineering, teaching, and socializing. I then argue that large-scale change involves an alteration of multiple organizational elements, thus requiring enactment of multiple intervention ideal types. This requires change agents to display temporal capability skills to effectively sequence, time, pace and combine various interventions." -- from Abstract

Understanding the Spread of Malignant Conflict: A Dynamical Systems Perspective
Musallam, N, Coleman, P, & Nowak, A
"Using a Dynamical Systems Perspective, the current paper will examine the processes and the mechanisms under which conflict malignancy spreads psychologically, socially, and structurally. The paper includes the following sections: 1) a discussion of the characteristics of malignant social conflicts, 2) a review of the literature on psychological, social, and structural dimensions related to conflict pervasiveness, 3) findings from an exploratory study conducted with Israelis and Palestinians on the spread of destructive conflict, and 4) a discussion of the relevance of dynamical-systems theory for conceptualizing and measuring the spread of negativity in conflict." -- from Abstract

War and Peace in International Rivalry
Diehl, P, & Goertz, G
"The first part of the book deals with how to conceptualize and measure rivalries and presents empirical patterns among rivalries in the period 1816-1992. The concepts derived from the study of rivalries are then used to reexamine two central pieces of international relations research, namely deterrence and 'democratic peace' studies. The second half of the book builds an explanation of enduring rivalries based on a theory adapted from evolutionary biology, 'punctuated equilibrium.'" -- from Website

Washington is Fixed and Needs to be Broken
Coleman, P T
19 Jan 2011
"If you look at the geographic breakdown of Democratic and Republican voting within each of the 50 states over the last three presidential elections, you see a fascinating pattern... U.S. citizens keep voting the same way in the same places. These patterns, in Washington and across the country, are what complexity scientists call attractors... Attractors are created by a combination of many things - beliefs, habits, norms, loyalties, the media - that slowly come together to form powerful constraints on how we think, feel and act. In other words, it just may be that the behaviors of our politicians (and our populace) are currently ruled by forces largely beyond their control." -- from Article

What Does Peace Mean to You?
Gray, S
13 Jul 2012
The author describes a research project in Burma designed "to explore how the Burmese and their partners can build peace that is comprehensive, stable, and long term... But this is better said in the words of the Burmese themselves... I thought I'd share a few responses to my favorite interview question: what does peace mean to you? (from Website)."

Why We are Stuck: The Attraction of a Polarized America
In this TED Talk, "Peter T. Coleman explains why politics in the US are more deadlocked and polarized today than they have been since the end of the US Civil War, and what our next president and our citizens can do about it. Applying ideas from complexity science, Dr. Coleman explains how the current 'attractor' pattern of polarization we are stuck in came about, the crisis it presents, and the window of opportunity it offers us for positive change to be sparked from both above (our leaders) and below (us)." -- from Website