- Vera Brittain
These references supplement the Knowledge Base Essay, Humiliation.
Additional Explanations of the Underlying Concepts:
Online (Web) Sources
Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies .
Available at: http://www.humiliationstudies.org
This website and it's team of researchers, the Human Dignity and Humiliation Team, aim to help reduce-and ultimately eliminate destructive disrespect and humiliation all over the world through research, education, and intervention.
Lindner, Evelin Gerda. "Humiliation: Trauma That Has Been Overlooked: An Analysis Based on Fieldwork in Germany, Rwanda / Burundi, and Somalia." Traumatology , March 2001
Available at: http://www.fsu.edu/%7Etrauma/v7/Humiliation.pdf
This article explores what differentiates trauma from humiliation. It is argued that trauma may occur without humiliation, but that humiliation may be a core agent of trauma. Moreover, the paper suggests that the significance of humiliation in traumatic experiences has long been overlooked by researchers and practitioners.
The Nature of Humiliation. Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies.
Available at: Primary Link
This article defines humiliation and explains what factors mediate the intensity of felt humiliation.
Lindner, Evelin Gerda. "What Every Negotiator Should Know: Understanding Humiliation." ,
Available at: http://www.humiliationstudies.org/cic_documents/evelin/Negotiator.pdf
This paper presents a theory of humiliation and identifies its significance as an interpretative tool for use by negotiators in many kinds of situations. Humiliation and its aftermath have an important impact upon patterns of conflict, culture and communication.
Offline (Print) Sources
Miller, William Ian. Humiliation: And Other Essays on Honor, Social Discomfort, and Violence. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, November 1993.
The author offers useful and precise distinctions between shame and humiliation, as well as between the various strategies used to avoid them--assuming the mantle of humility or indifference, for instance, or embracing and enduring humiliation.
Examples Illustrating this Topic:
Online (Web) Sources
Simmons, Annette. "Dangerous Truths." , 1999
Available at: http://www.govexec.com/features/0499/0499s6.htm
This article examines the negative atmosphere that can be found at a number of governmental agencies that subjects employees ?to public humiliation, intimidation, isolation, and recriminations? if they verbalize the truth about what takes place at their organizations. This article also gives suggestions on what can be done to address this problem.
Fangen, Katrine. Humiliation as Experienced by Somali Immigrants.
Available at: http://www.humiliationstudies.org/cic_documents/FangenSomalia.pdf
This paper examines feelings of humiliation as experienced by Somali immigrants living in Norway.
Sinai, Ruth. "Humiliation Can Scar a Boy For Life." , 2003
Available at: http://friendvill1203.homestead.com/Humiliation.html
This article describes how humiliation affects the lives of children in conflict areas and offers an example of what can be done to help children caught in cycles of violence and humiliation.
Lindner, Evelin Gerda. Humiliation in Armed Conflicts.
Available at: http://folk.uio.no/evelinl/
This website includes a variety of information on the psychological variable of humiliation within conflict theory. The site is dedicated to the examination of the role of humiliation and includes an essay on the role of humiliation in the conflicts in Somalia, Burundi and Rwanda. In addition, the site includes a lengthy bibliography of works on the issue.
Utterwulghe, Steve. "Rwanda's Protracted Social Conflict: Considering the Subjective Perspective in Conflict Resolution Strategies." Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution, Vol. 2, No. 3 ,
Available at: http://trinstitute.org/ojpcr/2-3utter.htm
This article explains how cultural humiliation, oppression, and victimhood affect an individual's identity, conflict situations, and processes of reconciliation.
Lindner, Evelin Gerda. "Were Ordinary Germans Hitler's Willing Executioners?." IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues , January 2000
Available at: http://www.ideajournal.com/articles.php?id=31
This article presents findings from fieldwork in Africa (1998, 1999) and Germany (1994-2000). It includes a detailed discussion of Hitler's views about propaganda and his use of this instrument to seduce the masses. It concludes that present-day Germans suffer feelings of humiliation and anger not only at having lost World War II (and in some cases at being labeled accomplices in genocide) but also at having been "taken in" by Hitler, and by their own desire to participate in the strong and positive feelings he created among the people at large. A similar chain of events unfolded in the case of the Somalian population in relation to the late dictator Siad Barre. - Abstract
Offline (Print) Sources
Maki, Mitchell T., Harry H. L. Kitano and S. Megan Berthold. Achieving the Impossible Dream : How Japanese Americans Obtained Redress (The Asian American Experience). Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
During World War II over 110,000 Japanese-American U.S. citizens and legal residents were incarcerated without charges or trial by the U.S. government's self-proclaimed beacon of liberty and justice. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, coupled with racism and wartime hysteria, generated widespread support for violating the civil rights of Japanese Americans living along the Pacific Coast of the United States. Following government orders, Japanese Americans took what belongings they could carry and were incarcerated in remote, hastily constructed concentration camps. When they emerged from the camps, they faced humiliation, prejudice, and economic ruin. This book is a account of this horrific event the aftermath dealt with by Japanese Americans.
Teaching Materials on this Topic:
Online (Web) Sources
Cooper, Christopher. "Teaching Young People to Save Face Through Conflict Resolution Training." , January 1997
Available at: http://www.crnetwork.ca/library/search.asp?Method=Title
This brief article examines face saving skills that enable young people to leave conflict situations not just unharmed, but also allow them to depart gracefully. This type of response makes sense to many teenagers since they avoid injury, embarrassment, humiliation, and/or loss of dignity.